Discussing ethnic inequality as it pertains to the social change movements associated with drug use and overdoses. Social epidemiology looks at the multilevel thinking to combine urban built environments and socioeconomic status to explain heroin and cocaine use, as well as the effectiveness of drug programs (Galea, Hall, & Kaplan, 2009). Nandi, Galea, Ahern, Bucciarelli, Vlahov, and Tardiff, (2006) discusses the accidental overdoses and fatalities in drug use while associating them with multi-level case control studies. The studies have indicated a connection between neighborhood income inequalities and overdose deaths (Nandi et al, 2006). Nandi et al, (2006) looked at three levels within a neighborhood that may increase the inequalities and overdose levels; environmental disorder, level of police involvement, and quality of environmental build. Using this hypothesis, income and environmental inequalities have a large impact on overdose fatalities (Nandi et al, 2006). Provine (2011) suggests that the war on drugs cannot be maintained unless there is social racism manipulating stereotypes in order to make drugs something to fear. Advocates for the war on drugs are benign to the drug existence by associating drugs with groups such as college students and the dislike of racial minorities (Provine, 2011).
Galea, S., Hall, C., & Kaplan, G. A. (2009). Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20(3), 209-216.
Nandi, A., Galea, S., Ahern, J., Bucciarelli, A., Vlahov, D., & Tardiff, K. (2006). What explains the association between neighborhood-level income inequality and the risk of fatal overdose in New York City?. Social science & medicine, 63(3), 662-674.
Provine, D. M. (2011). Race and inequality in the war on drugs. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 7, 41-60.